Dental problems in patients with malocclusion can range from crooked teeth to temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Orthodontic treatments such as braces, Invisalign, and various appliances can be used to align teeth and improve the bite. Surgical correction may be required in severe cases.

Indications for orthodontic and surgical correction methods include crowding, spacing, protrusion, overbite, and underbite. However, there may be contraindications such as poor oral hygiene, active periodontal disease, and systemic conditions that affect healing.

Orthodontic treatment can take between 18 months to 3 years, depending on the complexity of the case. Surgical correction methods involve cutting and repositioning the jawbone and may require a longer recovery period.

The advantages of orthodontic and surgical correction methods are improved aesthetics, better oral function, and reduced risk of dental problems such as decay and gum disease. The disadvantages may include discomfort, cost, and the need for ongoing maintenance.

The effect of orthodontic and surgical correction methods can be long-lasting, especially if good oral hygiene practices are followed. Side effects such as pain, swelling, and bruising are common after surgical procedures, but these can be managed with pain medication and ice packs.

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